Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa

Natural Splendours of South Africa
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South Africa's Information

This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent landscapes of South Africa and the distinctive landforms associated with them. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa | This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent.

Owing to the cold waters of the west coast being much richer in oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and plankton than those of the east coast, the South African fishing industry is centred on the west coast. South Africa has no significant natural lakes. Artificial lakes are used mostly for crop irrigation. Forming the boundary between these two areas is the Great Escarpment, the most prominent and continuous relief feature of the country.

Inland from the escarpment lies the interior plateau, which is the southern continuation of the great African plateau stretching north to the Sahara Desert. The plateau is characterised by wide plains with an average height of 1 m above sea level. The dissected Lesotho plateau, which is more than 3 m above sea level, is the most prominent. Between the Great Escarpment and the coast lies an area which varies in width from 80 km to km in the east and south, and 60 km to 80 km in the west.

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Socotra lies E. Off the north-west coast are the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagoes. Lying almost entirely within the tropics, and equally to north and south of the equator, Africa does not show excessive variations of temperature. Great heat is experienced in the lower plains and desert regions of North Africa, removed by the great width of the continent from the influence of the ocean, and here, too, the contrast between day and night, and between summer and winter, is greatest.

The rarity of the air and the great radiation during the night cause the temperature in the Sahara to fall occasionally to freezing point. Farther south, the heat is to some extent modified by the moisture brought from the ocean, and by the greater elevation of a large part of the surface, especially in East Africa, where the range of temperature is wider than in the Congo basin or on the Guinea coast.

In the extreme north and south the climate is a warm temperate one, the northern countries being on the whole hotter and drier than those in the southern zone; the south of the continent being narrower than the north, the influence of the surrounding ocean is more felt.

South African Landscapes

The most important climatic differences are due to variations in the amount of rainfall. The wide heated plains of the Sahara, and in a lesser degree the corresponding zone of the Kalahari in the south, have an exceedingly scanty rainfall, the winds which blow over them from the ocean losing part of their moisture as they pass over the outer highlands, and becoming constantly drier owing to the heating effects of the burning soil of the interior; while the scarcity of mountain ranges in the more central parts likewise tends to prevent condensation.

In the inter-tropical zone of summer precipitation, the rainfall is greatest when the sun is vertical or soon after. It is therefore greatest of all near the equator, where the sun is twice vertical, and less in the direction of both tropics. The rainfall zones are, however, somewhat deflected from a due west-to-east direction, the drier northern conditions extending southwards along the east coast, and those of the south northwards along the west.

Within the equatorial zone certain areas, especially on the shores of the Gulf of Guinea and in the upper Nile basin, have an intensified rainfall, but this rarely approaches that of the rainiest regions of the world. The two distinct rainy seasons of the equatorial zone, where the sun is vertical at half-yearly intervals, become gradually merged into one in the direction of the tropics, where the sun is overhead but once.

Snow falls on all the higher mountain ranges, and on the highest the climate is thoroughly Alpine. The countries bordering the Sahara are much exposed to a very dry wind, full of fine particles of sand, blowing from the desert towards the sea. Known in Egypt as the khamsin , on the Mediterranean as the sirocco , it is called on the Guinea coast the harmattan.

This wind is not invariably hot; its great dryness causes so much evaporation that cold is not infrequently the result. Similar dry winds blow from the Kalahari Desert in the south. On the eastern coast the monsoons of the Indian Ocean are regularly felt, and on the southeast hurricanes are occasionally experienced.

The climate of Africa lends itself to certain environmental diseases, the most serious of which are: malaria , sleeping sickness and yellow fever. Malaria is the most deadly environmental disease in Africa. It is transmitted by a genus of mosquito anopheles mosquito native to Africa, and can be contracted over and over again.

Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa

There is not yet a vaccine for malaria, which makes it difficult to prevent the disease from spreading in Africa. Recently, the dissemination of mosquito netting has helped lower the rate of malaria. Yellow fever is a disease also transmitted by mosquitoes native to Africa. Unlike malaria, it cannot be contracted more than once.

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Like chicken pox, it is a disease that tends to be severe the later in life a person contracts the disease. Sleeping sickness, or African trypanosomiasis, is a disease that usually affects animals, but has been known to be fatal to some humans as well. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly and is found almost exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa. These are the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location on the continent.

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Each section features the key attractions, places to explore, the towns and villages, food and accommodation options. Knight Fig. It seems that you're in Germany. Trang An Landscape Complex. The nomadic lifestyle of the San conflicted with the established pastoral existence of the European settlers and conflict between the farmers and the San continued up until as late as the last half of the nineteenth century.

The highest point in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro , 5, Wikimedia Atlas of Africa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Africa portal. In Chisholm, Hugh ed.

South African Plant Life

Cambridge University Press. Gondwana Research. D Erosion and sedimentation by water: problems and prospects. Ambio , The Geological Society of America. Journal of Geophysical Research : F Africa, Fourth Edition.

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Africa, a type of grazing characterised by long coarse grass. Africa, a type of grazing characterised by sweet grass. America and Eurasia and having a permanently frozen subsoil. Mayan a deep natural hole in the ground with a pool at the bottom, esp in the Yucatan peninsula, often used by the Mayas as a place of sacrifice. Greek a large, relatively stable section of earth's crust, forming the basis of a continent or ocean. Urdu a tongue or tract of land included between two rivers; as, the doab between the Ganges and the Jumna.

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Icelandic a type of thermal spring which ejects water intermittently with considerable force; verb to eject jets of water and steam.