Many operators routinely perform cement bond logs for the zones of interest, so the BLM does not expect this step to be a burden for operators. The best available means for the BLM to help ensure that well stimulation activities do not contaminate aquifers is to require cement bond logs for the cement behind the pipe along all areas intersecting useable water, including running cement bond logs on the surface casing.
This proposed section would also require the operator to disclose specific information about the water source to be used in the fracturing operation, including the location of the water that would be used as the base fluid. The BLM needs this information to determine the impacts associated with operations and the need for any mitigation applicable to Federal and Indian lands. This section would also require the operator to disclose the type of materials proppants that would be injected into the fractures to keep them open and the anticipated pressures to be used in the well stimulation operation.
The BLM will use this information to make an informed decision on the proposed action. This section also would require the operator to certify that it has complied with all necessary permit and notice requirements. The BLM acknowledges that other Federal, state, tribal, and local agencies may have regulatory requirements that would apply to chemical handling, injecting fluids into the subsurface, and the protection of groundwater.
It remains the responsibility of the operator to be aware of and comply with these regulatory requirements. The BLM will rely on the operator's certification that it has complied with all of the laws and regulations that apply to its operation. This information is needed in order for the BLM to be able to verify that the proposed engineering design is adequate for safely conducting the proposed well stimulation. This information is needed by the BLM to verify that the maximum wellbore design burst pressure will not be exceeded at any stage of the well stimulation operation.
This information is needed by the BLM to verify that the maximum allowable injection pressure will not be exceeded at any stage of the well stimulation operation. This information is being requested so that the BLM has all necessary information regarding chemicals being used in the event that the information is needed to help protect health and safety or to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of the public lands.
This information is required to ensure that the facilities needed to process or contain the estimated volume of fluid will be available on location. This information is needed to ensure that the handling methods will adequately protect of public health and safety. This is currently required by existing BLM regulations i.
This information is requested so that the BLM has all necessary information regarding disposal of chemicals used in the event it is needed to protect the environment and human health and safety and to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of the public lands. The BLM specifically requests comments on whether the operator should be required to submit as part of the Sundry Notice application additional information about how it will dispose of waste streams not specifically addressed in this proposal.
For example, the BLM may require new or different tests or logs in cases where the original information submitted was inadequate, out of date, or incomplete. Any new information that the BLM may request will be limited to information necessary for the BLM to ensure that operations are consistent with applicable laws and regulation. Such information may include, but is not limited to, tabular or graphical results of a mechanical integrity test, the results of logs run, the results of tests showing the total dissolved solids in water proposed to be used as the base fluid, and the name of the contractor performing the stimulation.
This provision would allow the BLM to obtain additional information about the proposed well stimulation activities. For example, after initial cementing activities, an operator may be asked to perforate the well casing and squeeze cement into the areas with inadequate cement bonding.
In this case, the BLM may ask for additional information to show that the corrective action was successful and to ensure that the corrective work addressed any cement bonding deficiencies. The BLM wants to ensure that any additional information requested under this provision is the least burdensome to operators as possible while still accomplishing the goal of protecting the public lands and resources; therefore, the BLM is specifically requesting public comment on how this may be best achieved. This requirement is necessary to help ensure the integrity of the wellbore under anticipated maximum pressures during well stimulation operations.
This test would show that the casing is strong enough to protect water and other subsurface resources during well stimulation activities. The proposed section The requirement to be feet below the cement top would be imposed to ensure that the production or intermediate casing is surrounded by a competent cement sheath as required by Onshore Order Number 2. The foot requirement is required by some state statutes e. Testing would emulate the pressure conditions that would be seen in the proposed stimulation process in order to ensure that the casing used in the well would be robust enough to handle the pressures.
This language does not set a new standard in the BLM's regulations. This test, together with the other proposed requirements, would demonstrate if the casing is strong enough to protect water and other subsurface resources during well stimulation activities. The BLM believes that all of these tests are important to show that reasonable precautions have been taken to ensure the protection of other resources during well stimulation activities.
The pressure during the stimulation should be contained in the string through which the stimulation is being pumped. Unexpected changes in the monitored and recorded pressure s would provide an early indication of the possibility that well integrity has been compromised. This information is needed by the BLM to ensure that well stimulation activities are conducted as designed. This information would also show that stimulation fluids are going to the formation for which they were intended.
Within 15 days after the occurrence, the operator must submit a Subsequent Report Sundry Notice Form , Sundry Notices and Report on Wells to the BLM containing all details pertaining to the incident, including corrective actions taken. This information is needed by the BLM to ensure that stimulation fluids are going into the formation for which they were designed.
The BLM also needs to obtain reasonable assurance that other resources are adequately protected. An increase of pressure in the annulus of this amount could indicate that the casing had been breached during well stimulation. This provision grants flexibility for the operator to choose using either a lined pit or a storage tank, whichever the operator determines is the least burdensome or costly option for the storage of flowback fluid.
The BLM is proposing this requirement because flowback fluids could contain hydrocarbons from the formation and could also contain additives and other components that might degrade surface and ground water if they were to be released without treatment.
This provision is consistent with existing industry practice and American Petroleum Institute API recommendations for handling completion fluids including hydraulic fracturing fluids see Section 6. Additional conditions of approval for the handling of flowback water may be placed on the project by the BLM if needed to ensure protection of the environment and other resources. The BLM specifically requests comments on whether this rule should impose additional requirements that would require tanks or lined pits for drilling fluids and any other fluids associated with well stimulation operations.
The BLM recognizes the ongoing efforts of states to regulate hydraulic fracturing operations. In implementing this rule, the BLM intends to avoid duplication of existing state requirements and will continue to engage states in cooperative efforts to avoid duplication. Please comment on whether this proposed provision would be duplicative of provisions of state rules and whether it is unnecessarily burdensome.
The BLM would determine if the well stimulation operation was conducted as approved. This information would be retained by the BLM as part of the individual well record and would be available for use when the well has been depleted and the plugging of the well is being designed. This information identifies the producing interval of the well and will be available for use when the well has been depleted and plugging of the well is being designed.
Fundamentals Of Acid Stimulation. The protests started a few years ago, but fracturing jobs have been performed since more than fifty years. In oil-in-water emulsions tiny nonpolar droplets of oil spread in a polar water phase [ 4 ]. Deadline extended for Middle East Energy Awards. Learn More. Emulsions in different industries can be formed intentionally to meet required applications, but emulsions occurrence in many cases is undesired and may cause serious problems.
Specific information as to the actual source of water, including location of the water being used as the base fluid, is required because the BLM needs the information to determine the impacts associated with operations and the need for any mitigation applicable to Federal and Indian lands. In addition to the information provided for the individual stages, the pressure values for each flush stage must also be included. This information is needed by the BLM for it to ensure that the maximum allowable pressure was not exceeded at any stage of the well stimulation operation.
Proposed sections This information is needed in order for the BLM to maintain a record of the stimulation operation as performed. The information is being required in a format that does not link additives required by The BLM intends to place this information on a public Web site and is working with the Ground Water Protection Council in an effort to integrate this information into the existing Web site known as FracFocus. The disclosure of the fluids used in hydraulic fracturing would only be required after the fracturing operation has taken place.
This section would require the operator to show that the well stimulation activity was successfully implemented as designed and that the integrity of the well was maintained during stimulation. The operator is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of any information provided to the BLM, even if originally drafted by a third party. The proposed section would also require that the operator certify that it has complied with all necessary permit and notice requirements.
This information would be retained by the BLM as part of the well record and be available for use when the well has been depleted and closure of the well is being designed. The information is also needed for the BLM to fulfill its obligation to prevent unnecessary or undue degradation of the public land.
This information is needed because the BLM has a mandate to protect human health and safety and prevent contamination of the environment. The operator must also report how it handled those fluids after operations were completed. This section also makes it clear that the fluid disposal methods must be consistent with Onshore Order Number 7, Disposal of Produced Water 58 FR This information is needed so that the BLM can help protect human health and safety and prevent the contamination of the environment.
The BLM also needs to confirm that the disposal methods used are those that were approved and conform to the regulations. Understanding the complexities of well stimulation, the BLM expects there to be slight differences between the proposed plan and the actual operation. If the operator fails to specifically identify information as exempt from disclosure by Federal law, the BLM will release that information. The BLM may also release information which the operator has marked as exempt if the BLM determines that public release is not prohibited by Federal law after providing the operator with no fewer than 10 business days' notice of the determination.
All other information submitted by the operator will become a matter of public record. Variances apply only to operational activities and do not apply to the actual approval process. The proposed regulation would make clear that the BLM has the right to rescind a variance or modify any condition of approval due to changes in Federal law, technology, regulation, field operations, noncompliance, or other reasons. The BLM must make a determination that the variance request meets or exceeds the objectives of the regulation.
The BLM could grant a variance to allow for the use of logs other than cement bond logs if it was satisfied that the alternative logs would meet or exceed the objectives of section c 2. To understand the context of costs and benefits of the proposed rule, background information concerning the BLM's leasing of Federal oil and gas, and management of Federal and Indian leases may be helpful and is included here.
This discussion is provided to explain the basis for the conclusions related to the procedural matters sections that follow. There were 49, Federal oil and gas leases covering 38,, acres at the end of fiscal year FY For FY , there were 90, producible and service drill holes and 96, producible and service completions on Federal leases. For FY , onshore Federal oil and gas leases produced about 98 million barrels of oil, 2.
This analysis attempts to capture the potential benefits and costs that would result if the BLM implemented the proposed rule.